Kulturna dediščina

Zgodovina slamnikarstva

 

Zgodovina slamnikarstva, kot nam je poznana iz dostopnih virov, je pomembno vplivala na življenje in razvoj Domžal in okolice. Vsebina interpretacije tematske poti je dediščina slamnikarskih tovarn v prostoru – torej spremembe, ki jih je povzročila industrializacija v in zaradi česar se je podoba Domžal v zadnjih 150 letnih popolnoma spremenila.

Sredi 19. stoletja je bilo območje današnjih Domžal območje štirih vasi: Zgornje in Spodnje Domžale,  Študa in Stob. Iz franciscejskega katastra za Kranjsko iz leta 1825 je razvidno, da so imele vasi deloma obcestno in deloma gručasto strukturo, med posameznimi vasmi pa so bila polja in travniki. Iz virov vemo, da so bile domačije predvsem pritlične, pogosto so bile hiše lesen,  gospodarska poslopja so bila delno lesena in delno zidana. Značilnost porečja Kamniške Bistrice in s tem tudi  Domžal, so mlinščice – umetno narejeni kanali iz struge Kamniške Bistrice, da so lahko uporabljali njeno vodno moč. Kamniška Bistrica je bila namreč preveč hudourniška in preveč nepredvidljiva reka, da bi lahko vodne naprave (predvsem mline in žage) postavljali direktno na njeno strugo.

Slamnikarska domača obrt je bila v tem času že močno razvita,  država pa je začela spodbujati podjetništvo, kot bi temu rekli danes. Pojavljati so se začele prve registrirane slamnikarske delavnice. Vendar pa izdelovanje slamnikov še ni potekalo v namensko grajenih objektih, ampak so pletli kite in iz njih ročno šivali slamnike na domačijah, ki so se poleg kmetijstva bolj intenzivno ukvarjale tudi s slamnikarstvom.

Večje spremembe v kraju so se začele dogajati po letu 1866 in sicer zaradi spremenjenih političnih in ekonomskih razmer. Med Avstroogrsko monarhijo in Italijo se je spremenila meja, država je začela omejevati krošnjarjenje, krošnjarjenje z tujimi izdelki pa celo prepovedala. Tirolski podjetniki, ki so pred tem že začeli ustanavljati lastne slamnikarske delavnice v Marostiki (Italija) ter trgovine po mestih Srednje Evrope, so iskali območje za proizvodnjo slamnikov znotraj Avstroogrske monarhije. V Domžalah je bila izučena delovna sila in zaledje s polizdelki, poleg tega pa so Tirolci v te kraje kot krošnjarji zahajali že vsaj pol stoletja.

Tirolski podjetniki so tako kupili v Domžalah nekaj kmetij, preselili proizvodnjo iz Marostike v Domžale in pričeli z izdelovanjem slamnikov. Šivanje ni potekalo več ročno, ampak so seboj pripeljali tudi šivalne stroje. Obseg proizvodnje se je v nekaj letih tako povečal, da je bilo potrebno zgraditi nove proizvodne prostore.


The History of the Straw Hat Making

As we know it from the available sources, the history of the straw hat making had an important influence on the life and development of the Domžale and the surroundings. The contents of the interpretation on the thematic trail are the heritage of the straw hat factories – so, the changes that were caused by the industrialisation. That’s the reason for the total change of Domžale in the past 150 years.

In the middle of the 19th century, the area of the current Domžale was divided into four villages: The Upper and Lower Domžale, Študa, and Stob.The villages had partially roadside and partially nucleated structure. In between the villages, there were farmlands and meadows. The homesteads were mainly storey. The houses were often wooden, and the outbuildings were partially wooden and partially built with bricks. The characteristic of the basin of Kamniška Bistrica river and, therefore, Domžale, are “mlinščice” – artificial canals from the stream of Kamniška Bistrica, in order to be able to use its water power. Kamniška Bistrica was a too unpredictable river so the water devices (especially mills and saws) couldn’t be placed directly on its riverbed.

Straw hat home craft was extremely developed at that time already, and the state started encouraging the business. First registred straw hat workshops started appearing. But the straw hat making wasn’t located in the objects made for this purpose yet. People used to knit the braids and manually sewed the straw hats at their homesteads, which was, besides the farming, intensely occupied by the straw hat making.  

Bigger changes in the town started appearing after 1866 because of the changes in the politics and the economics. The border between the Austro-Hungarian Empire and the Italy has changed, the state started limiting the pedlaring, they even forbade the pedlaring with foreign products. Tyrol businessmen were looking for the area for the manufacture inside the Austro-Hungarian Empire. Before that, they have already started establishing their own straw hat workshops in Marostika (Italy) and the shops of the Middle Europe. In Domzale, the workforce was qualified and they had support of semi-finished products. The Tyrols had been going in the region as the pedlars for at least half a century.

Tyrol businessmen have bought some farms in Domžale, they moved the manufacture from Marostica to Domžale and started making the straw hats. They stopped sewing straw hats manually because the Tyrols have brought some sewing machines with them. The extent of the factory increased in a few years so they had to build some new manufacture places.

 

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